Annotated Bibliography: It’s a Man’s World…Or Is It? (Pseudonyms)

Cohen, Stephanie. “Why women writers still take men’s names.” Wall Street Journal Asia (2012): W.4. ProQuest. Web. 21 Oct. 2015. <>

  • Cohen explains in her article how pseudonyms can help authors gain a larger audience, with an emphasis on female writers seeking a wider male audience, because men “tend to favour male authors, according to several studies” (2012). Rather than stressing the struggles of gender bias from a pessimistic position, Cohen incorporates a realistic approach to the benefits of writers employing pseudonyms today who are seeking popularity in popular genres.

Dugdale, John. “Is the pseudonym going out of style? It’s two years since JK Rowling’s ‘Robert Galbraith’ revelation, yet the only literary disguise of late has been Erika Leonard masquerading as EL James. Could the nom de plume be a thing of the past?” The Guardian (2015). Academic OneFile. Web. 21 Oct. 2015. <>

  • Dugdale’s article argues that pseudonyms are no longer relevant today, contradicting other pieces by female writers I encountered, disregarding the still-present state of gender bias. He implies that “fear” controls the use of pseudonyms, instead of the pseudonym aiding in centralizing content as the main importance, which becomes more significant because he is not as exposed to gender bias as a male writer.

Easely, Alexis. Women Writers and Victorian Print Media, 1830-70. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004. Print.

  • Focusing on Easley’s chapter on George Eliot, she examines Eliot’s writings through the scope of the flawed system of “critical establishment” (119) in its methods of reading women’s writing. She suggests that Eliot established success “as a cultured, rather than feminine, woman writing” (147), interestingly turning the focus away from gender and and towards the cultured self.

Jaffe, J. Michael, et al. “Gender Identification, Interdependence, and Pseudonyms in CMC: Language Patterns in an Electronic Conference.” Information Society 15.4 (1999): 221-34. Taylor & Francis. Web. 22 Oct. 2015. <>

  • Although dated, Jaffe’s article speaks volumes to the way pseudonyms on the internet are still viewed, and the results of “reduced cues” (222) in the way we interact digitally while under an alias. Jaffe’s piece brings to light the manners in which relationships and bonds are formed while using pseudonyms, connecting the pseudonyms of the past (in print) and present (digitally).

Michelsen, G.F. “Pseudonyms.” Poets and Writers Magazine 22.2 (1994): 36. Periodicals Archive. Web. 22 Oct. 2015. <>

  • Michelsen’s article discusses his personal account of utilizing a pseudonym for one of his novels because he felt already “typecast” as a thriller writer. Due to the reaction he received after publishing his pseudonymously written book, readers can question the quality of work that is produced while under an alias (based on Michelsen’s experience which happens to be for the better), and if writers have the potential to tap into something “greater” through pseudonyms, challenging what the self is capable of when gender/identity is removed.

Morrison, Aimée. “‘Suffused By Feeling and Affect’: The Intimate Public of Personal Mommy Blogging.” Biography 34.1 (2011): 37-55. Print.

  • Morrison’s article, although not centred around the use of pseudonyms, promotes women’s writing anonymously and under pseudonyms through blogs. It is indicated that pseudonymous writing develops a safe haven for women to write personally without fear of exposure, suggesting that pseudonyms create communities among its writers.

Nichols, Catherine. “What I Learned Sending My Novel Out Under a Male Name.” Jezebel (2015). Web. 20 Oct. 2015. <>

  • Nichols took her own work and published it again under a male name, and while doing so she received “eight and a half times” (2015) more responses from publishers after 24 hours. Nichols’ experience exposes the gender inequalities that are still very prominent today, as opposed to Dugdale’s beliefs, in the publishing world for aspiring female writers.

Oliver Moody Science Correspondent. ”Gender bias writers told they need a man.” Times (2015): 22. Academic OneFile. Web. 22 Oct. 2015. <>

  • Although the female PhD students did not utilize a male pseudonym, reviewers suggested that they required a male voice in their writing about gender bias in their own field of publishing. The responses demonstrate an eminent issue with sexism in academia, insinuating an opportunity where pseudonyms, although not realistic in academia, could have been benefitted from.

Thormählen, Marianne. “The Brontë Pseudonyms.” English Studies 75.3 (1994): 246-55. EBSCO. Web. 21 Oct. 2015. <>

  • Thormählen studies the people behind the names of the Brontë pseudonyms, implying that these real women who influenced their pseudonyms shaped the way the Brontës wanted to be represented to the public. The history behind the pseudonyms, although appearing gender-neutral, still promotes strong female writing because they were “the surnames of remarkable contemporary women intellects,” (250) highlighting the importance of pseudonym selection that other texts did not mention.

Zanaroff, Howard G. “A Rose by Any Other Name: Pros and Cons of Pseudonyms.” Morse Barnes-Brown Pendleton. Web. 22 Oct. 2015. <>

  • Zanaroff reflects on the technicalities of pseudonyms for writers considering to use them, explaining the reasoning behind the purpose of pseudonyms. There is a suggestion that implies an ill-nature that coincides with pseudonyms, interestingly displaying the negative aspects that have the potential to be disregarded, particularly insinuating that there are writers who do not use pseudonyms for lawful intentions.


Before I began my research, I did not expect there to be such a numerous amount of pseudonymous writers today. If not a full pseudonym, women are applying gender-neutral names in order to hail an equal amount of male and female readers, the most popular current example being J.K. Rowling, who also used a male pseudonym in 2013. But comparing this research of current times alongside Victorian women paints a clear picture of how hard they fought against gender bias 150 years ago through their writing and even their pseudonym name selections. Although the reasoning that modern writers justify using pseudonyms may not have correlated precisely to the female writer of the Victorian era, remnants of gender bias is still a prominent issue not only for women, but any writer looking to attract a specific audience (ex. women writing science fiction and men writing romance). I was fascinated to discover that the particular piece that contradicted the current personal accounts was written by a man, claiming that the pseudonym is “going out of style” (Dugdale), as though it were merely a trend, as opposed to a key to survival in the gender bias chess game. Yet, marvelling at how far we have come does not disregard the challenges that still lay in our midst, if gender equality in writing will ever be achieved. Therefore, I will be situating my argument along the terms of the gender bias for writers today that appear to go unnoticed. The pseudonym should be relevant without the assumption that they are associated with “fear” and “veiling”, but rather a way to eliminate gender as a reference of judgement in writing altogether.

Word Count: 278


Butter Archive #9: Annotated Bibliography

Works Cited and Referenced:

Anthony, Jessica, and Rodrigo Corral. Chopsticks. Computer Software. Apple App Store. Vers. 1.0. Penguin Group, 2012. Web.
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  • The story of a teenage girl named Glory who is training to become a world class pianist and her relationship with Frank, a teenage boy who moves in next to her, while simultaneously weaving in the story of how Glory has gone missing. Told only in photographs, and now converted into an app, it promises that it “draws on a full spectrum of media to create a fully immersive novel experience.”

Anthony, Jessica, and Rodrigo Corral. Chopsticks. New York: Razorbill, 2012. Print.

  • The story of a teenage girl named Glory who is training to become a world class pianist and her relationship with Frank, a teenage boy who moves in next to her, while simultaneously weaving in the story of how Glory has gone missing. The print version will be used as a contrast study to the app version.

Bolter, Jay D. Writing Space. Second ed. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2001. Print.

  • In this comprehensive study on the relationship between print and new media, Jay David Bolter examines the changing sphere of publishing, especially in relation to hypertext. The chapter “The Electronic Book” is of specific interest, as it explores the changing concept of books, how “various electronic devices pay homage to the printed codex and other paper-based materials, while at the same time aiming to supersede them,” (79) the importance that ebooks are connected to the internet and therefore a limitless resource, and other key staples of ebooks.

Chivers, Tom. “Stephen King has the wrong villain – it’s not the ebook.” The Telegraph. N.p., 22 May 2013. Web. 23 Oct. 2015. < >.

  • This opinion piece looks at Stephen King’s refusal to publish his novel Joyland in ebook format and reflects on why it would be something an author would want to do (to discourage the extinction of bookstores) but also why it isn’t a very effective way to protest.

Jabr, Farris. “The Reading Brain in the Digital Age: The Science of Paper versus Screens.” Scientific American. N.p., 11 Apr. 2013. Web. 23 Oct. 2015. < >.

  • Starting with commentary about a video of a baby who mimicked similar actions on a physical magazine that she did on an iPad and the anti-technology arguments that followed, this article explores how human interaction with screens and paper differ. Of specific interest is the examination of information locality and how “people report that when trying to locate a particular piece of written information they often remember where in the text it appeared” but then how “in contrast, most screens… interfere with intuitive navigation of a text and inhibit people from mapping the journey in their minds.”

Ludovico, Alessandro. Post-Digital Print. Rotterdam: Onomatopee 77, 2012. Print.

  • Ludovico puts together a history of printing since 1894, with an emphasis on how digital publications are affecting publishing. He talks about the importance of “hybrid publications,” (156) those which mix print and e-print.

Mangen, Anne. “Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on reading comprehension.” International Journal of Educational Research 58 (2012). Web. 23 Oct. 2015. < >.

  • Anne Mangen performed a study of 72 tenth grade students who where assessed on their reading comprehension on computer screens versus paper sources by having them read the same excerpt and then testing them on what they could recall. This is an incredibly useful study as it opens the conversation as to whether or not reading digitally is as effective as reading a physical copy of a text.

Mendelson, Peter. What We See When We Read: Interactive Edition. New York: Penguin Random House, 2014. Print.

  • An exploration into the psychology behind reading, specifically how we create the images of characters and settings in our minds while reading descriptions (or lack there of). This “interactive edition” includes animations, sound effects, and full colour imagery to better emphasize the original text.

Rowling, J K. Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone. N.p.: Pottermore, 2015. Print.

  • The story of a young boy who learns he is a wizard and is taken to a school of wizardry where adventures ensue. Originally published in 1997, this new version has been published in 2015 specifically for iBooks, promoted as an “enhanced edition,” which includes illustrations, animations, interactions, and annotations from the author.

Stevenson, Noelle, and Grace Ellis. Lumberjanes #1. Los Angeles: Boom! Box, 2014. Print.

  • A comic book about five best friends who go to a summer camp and have friendship building adventures. This will be used as an exploration of graphics on a screen when compared to graphics in print.

Stevenson, Noelle, and Grace Ellis. Lumberjanes #18. Los Angeles: Boom! Box, 2015. Print.

  • A comic book about five best friends who go to a summer camp and have friendship building adventures. This will be used as an exploration of graphics in print when compared to graphics on a screen.

Thompson, John B. Books in the Digital Age. Cornwall: Polity Press, 2005. Print.

  • In Books in the Digital Age John Thompson creates a study and myth-busting of how electronic publishing has affected the publishing of books. He encourages the reader to look at elements outside of publishing that have encouraged the move to electronic books.

Watercutter, Angela. “Publishers Hustle to Make E-Books More Immersive.” Wired. N.p., 9 Apr. 2012. Web. 23 Oct. 2015.
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  • In her often cited article, Angela Watercutter explains the hurdles that publishers are having to tackle in an attempt to take full advantage of the ebook medium. She compares the movement like that of radio to TV, and explains some of the specific problems (big budgets, cross-platform formatting) that currently stand in the way.

I’ve amassed three groupings of citations. The first is a mixture of physical and electronic pieces of media that I hope to use in a hands-on contrasting and examining of ebooks versus paper books. I’ve chosen a comic book to examine the opportunities for graphics on screens, a photo-novel that incorporates video and animation, an “enhanced” novel, and an “interactive edition” of a non-fiction work, all in hopes of exploring the many different allowances of the medium. The second are studies and articles about the actual abilities and nuances of ebooks, such as studies on reading retention and books exploring how connectivity to the internet has changed what we expect from texts. Thirdly, I have a few responses to the rise of ebooks, including an author reaction and varied responses on the effects of ebooks in publishing. When all things are considered, the general tone and sentiment is one of uneasiness. It is obvious that publishers, authors, and readers alike are all aware that ebooks are here but that no one knows exactly how ebooks will coexist with physical books and what unique opportunities they can offer. I want to focus my paper on that uneasiness and consider what could be achieved if ebooks were more readily and happily embraced.


Word count of summary: 210
Word count of annotated bibliography: 1180

Wanderlust: Annotated Bibliography & Summary

Works Cited:

Akehurst, Gary. “User Generated Content: The Use of Blogs for Tourism Organisations and Tourism Consumers.” Serv Bus 3 (2008): 51–61. Web. 18 Oct. 2015. <;.

This article refers to the expansion of user generated content on the Internet, specifically travel blogs and their effect on the travel industry. This user generated content is deemed more reliable and trustworthy by consumers, however due to the variability in travel blogs, Akehurst mentions that a system needs to be integrated in order to better organize these blogs. He further explores the debate about whether these blogs can assist the tourism industry or can only be referred to as an informal tool.

Banyai, Maria, and Troy D. Glover. “Evaluating Research Methods on Travel Blogs.” Journal of Travel Research 51.3 (2012): 267–277. Web. 18 Oct. 2015. <;.

This article discusses a variety of research methods that can be applied to content found in travel blogs, specifically content and narrative analysis. Banyai and Glover reflect on the strengths, weaknesses, and implications surrounding these analyses and further look into industry and methodological implications related to travel blogs. It is through this research that this article can also be referred to by destination marketers who wish to incorporate travel blogs into their strategic marketing.

Banyai, Maria, and Mark E. Havitz. “Analyzing Travel Blogs Using a Realist Evaluation Approach.” Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management 22 (2013): 229–241. Web. 18 Oct. 2015. <;.

This article argues that a variety of ideologies and methods need to be utilized for the analysis of travel blogs, specifically realist evaluation approach in order for one to understand its subjective and objective components that can then be applied to research and marketing purposes.

Calzati, Stefano. “Power and Representation in Anglo-American Travel Blogs and Travel Books about China.” CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 14.5 (2012): 1–10. Web. 18 Oct. 2015. <;.

Calzati’s research looks at the comparison of two travel books versus two travel blogs written by American travellers on their trips to China. It is through this analysis that Calzati wishes to discover the similarities and differences between these distinct mediums and how this affects each group’s representations and interpretations of themselves as travellers, as well as China as a country.

Chen, Yu-Chen, Rong-An Shang, and Ming-Jin Li. “The Effects of Perceived Relevance of Travel Blogs’ Content on the Behavioral Intention to Visit a Tourist Destination.” Computers in Human Behavior 30 (2014): 787–799. Web. 7 Oct. 2015. <;.

This article refers to the immense number of travel blogs that exist on the Internet, however some blogs illustrate a higher degree of influence on tourists in comparison to other blogs. Chen et al. identify which characteristics are better at capturing an audience’s attention and how it influences people’s travel decisions. It is through this research that they wish to assist tourism managers in order to better their marketing efforts.

Hsiao, Kuo-Lun, Hsi-Peng Lu, and Wan-Chin Lan. “The Influence of the Components of Storytelling Blogs on Readers’ Travel Intentions.” Internet Research 23.2 (2013): 160–182.  Web. 18 Oct. 2015. <;.

The purpose of this study is to determine how storytelling blogs affect their audience’s travel consumption. In addition, their findings look at how a reader’s demographics such as gender and age can also affect their travel purchases.

Lin, Yu-Shan, and Jun-Ying Huang. “Internet Blogs as a Tourism Marketing Medium: A Case Study.” Journal of Business Research 59.10-11 (2006): 1201–1205. Web. 18 Oct. 2015. <;.

This article focuses on a specific travel blog by a Taiwanese engineer who went on vacation in Greece, respectively named “I Left My Heart in Aegean Sea”, and how this website is capable of attracting a large audience and convinces many to also travel to Greece. It is through this identification of successful components used by this travel blogger that Lin and Huang wish to assist the tourism industry and its nations to successfully promote their countries to travellers.

Panteli, Niki, Lin Yan, and Petros Chamakiotis. “Writing to the Unknown: Bloggers and the Presence of Backpackers.” Information Technology & People 24.4 (2011): 362–377.  Web. 18 Oct. 2015. <;.

Panteli et al.’s argue that travel bloggers are unaware of their audience in regards to who specifically reads their blogs, which can be applied to many other social networks, but nonetheless are capable of developing relationships with their readers. They research further into this topic by studying backpackers and how they use their blogs as well as how they create and sustain their presence among these known and unknown audiences.

Pudliner, Betsy A. “Alternative Literature and Tourist Experience: Travel and Tourist Weblogs.” JOURNAL OF TOURISM AND CULTURAL CHANGE 5.1 (2007): 46–59. Web. 18 Oct. 2015. <;.

This article refers to the evolution of travel writing and how the emergence of technology has created this “digital storytelling” that many travellers use in their travel blogs. Pudliner intends to analyze this narrative form to discuss tourism as a language, as a place of experience, and its authenticity.

Sigala, Marianna, Evangelos Christou, and Ulrike Gretzel. “Social Media in Travel, Tourism and Hospitality : Theory, Practice and Cases.” Ashgate Publishing Limited (2012): n. pag. Web. 8 Oct. 2015. <;.

A number of chapters will be used from this book to view how blogs reinvent tourism communication, travellers’ use of social media, and users’ attitudes towards these social networks.

Ting, Kuo-Chang, Ping-Ho Ting, and Po-Wen Hsiao. “Why Are Bloggers Willing to Share Their Thoughts via Travel Blogs?” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT · 64.1 (2014): 89–108. Web. 18 Oct. 2015. <;.

This study focuses on travel blogger’s behaviours, specifically the reasoning behind a blogger’s decision to share their travel experience with others. Therefore, Ting et al. attempt to understand key influence factors shared among travel bloggers.

Vrana, Vasiliki, and Kostas Zafiropoulos. “Locating Central Travelers’ Groups in Travel Blogs’ Social Networks.” Journal of Enterprise Information Management 23.5 (2010): 595–609.  Web. 18 Oct. 2015. <;.

This paper integrates in order to provide a methodology to locate central groups of travellers. In addition, Vrana et al. wish to describe pattern characteristics found among these central travellers.


Through my brief analysis of these scholarly articles, many had the intention of researching further into the studies of travel blogs and travel literature in order to assist the tourism industry and improve their marketing skills. This illustrates how travel blogs have taken the interest of many groups of people, including those in involved in tourism, due to its successful promotion and influence to make others travel around the globe. Although many of these journal articles contain marketing implications, some do show genuine interest in this subculture and how bloggers as well as their audience react to social media as a new space for this idea of digital storytelling through the inclusion of photos and videos alongside their narratives. Therefore, I believe the current state of debate regarding the topic of travel blogs is that they are a useful marketing tool among tourism businesses which has influenced this industry to adapt to social networks and the idea of using the internet to reach their consumers. However, it is through this newfound popularity among travel blogs that have encouraged travellers to share their stories with others and to engage in this new form of digital writing. It is through this engagement that has sparked the interest of many researchers into how the travel blogging environment functions among its authors and readers.

Word Count: 220